This book aims to make a theoretical, empirical and prescriptive contribution to the contemporary study of policy transfer. In the first regard, it observes that despite bold claims to the contrary (see Dolowitz and Marsh, 1996; and Evans, ed., 2010), most studies of policy transfer are characterised by their mono-cultural understanding of the process of policy-oriented learning reflected in an obsession with the destination of transfer rather than its original policy setting or settings. This betrays an absence of strong comparative investigation of the process of learning. Moreover, existing approaches to the study of policy transfer networks (the process of policy learning) are limited by their narrow epistemological perspectives as in the main they tend to lend undue focus on actors, ideas/interests or structure. Following the work of Marsh and Smith on policy networks (2000), this book contends that these elements cannot be separately analyzed. It therefore advances an interactive model of policy transfer networks that investigates the process of learning through three interactive dimensions: between structure and agents, network and context, and network and outcome. The book's second main contribution - the presentation of original case study explorations of the role of policy transfer in facilitating the rise of the Quasi-Competition State. The book contends that policy transfer has become a key policy instrument in the process of transition from a command to a market socialist economy, and latterly to what may be termed a Quasi-Competition State. Indeed, in order to meet the perceived imperatives of state transformation, the 'Reform and Open Door' policy has been featured by a broad range of processes of policy learning. It is, however, beyond the scope of this book to present a comprehensive description and explanation of this complex and multi-faceted reform process, rather the aim of this account is to provide an examination of certain processes of policy transfer which are broadly indicative of the dynamics of change underpinning the incremental process of reform. The third and final contribution of this book lies in its identification of the ingredients of rational policy transfer which can hopefully help guide future Chinese policy-makers to more progressive policy outcomes.
This book compiles a collection of case studies analysing drivers of and responses to change amongst contemporary hunter-gatherers. Contemporary hunter-gatherers' livelihoods are examined from perspectives ranging from historical legacy to environmental change, and from changes in national economic, political and legal systems to more broad-scale and universal notions of globalization and acculturation. Far from the commonly held romantic view that hunter-gatherers continue to exist as isolated populations living a traditional lifestyle in harmony with the environment, contemporary hunter-gatherers - like many rural communities around the world - face a number of relatively new ecological and social challenges to which they are pressed to adapt. Contemporary hunter-gatherer societies are increasingly and rapidly being affected by Global Changes, related both to biophysical Earth systems (i.e., changes in climate, biodiversity and natural resources, and water availability), and to social systems (i.e. demographic transitions, sedentarisation, integration into the market economy, and all the socio-cultural change that these and other factors trigger). Chapter 10 of this book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
Research and development in agriculture is a very relevant topic in today's society, especially given the evolution of land ownership structures and resources exploitation. These transformations have paved the way for new approaches in the allocation and management of agricultural systems. Agricultural Management Strategies in a Changing Economy brings together emergent research and best practices in the area of agricultural management, policy, and structures. Highlighting theoretical concepts and empirical research, this book will be an all-encompassing reference source for professionals, researchers, academicians, practitioners, and students in the field of agricultural economics and sustainable development, as well as in related disciplines.